Walden Course 6713 Reflection-GAME Plan

    Before this course began, I was already quite adept at using technology for teaching, instruction, and assessment. However, by developing a GAME plan based on implementing technology to solve real word issues and encourage collaboration among students, teachers, and community members, it forced me to strategically design lessons that focused on these two important goals. One major take away from developing a GAME plan was the realization that it is not really difficult to take existing lesson plans, and adapt them to address 21st century skills and expectations. I was amazed at how seamless it was to switch out old activities such as reading articles and completing reports, to having students research their own articles and images, and create a digital story. I have shared these lessons with my colleagues, and have encouraged them to use them in order to improve engagement and achievement in our subject area.

    One revision I would make to my GAME plan is to try to use technology as much as possible with daily instruction, and not on a daily basis. One of the provisions of implementing SMART goals like the GAME plan is that the goal must be attainable. With the amount of testing and surveys, and other school events that take place in my school, the schedules are often out of whack. This causes me to lose days in which I can implement technology. This upcoming week is a prime example. Due to final exams and ceremonies, I will only see each of my class periods three times this week instead of five. Those two days that my students will not enter my classrooms could have been opportunities for me to implement technology for authentic learning.

    As far as my students are concerned, I can have my students develop a GAME plan the same way that I did for this class.  A GAME plan can help my students come up with an end goal in which they can work towards.  Students using a GAME plan can see how great it is to develop goals and work in increments to meet those goals. My students can also give themselves, teachers, and other students positive feedback about meeting their goals. Cennamo, Ross, and Ertmer (2010) state “the GAME plan requires you to think about and take steps to direct your learning process” (pg. 3).  If students can develop their own GAME plan, then they will be able to develop higher order thinking skills.  Being able to develop their own GAME plan means they can use goals to guide their learning.

    My hope is that I can find even more lessons in which I can adapt to include problem-based learning, social networking, online collaboration, and digital storytelling. My colleagues and I have already begun to look at lesson in our Southeast Asia unit specifically for this purpose. I believe it will take the subject matter, which most of the students already enjoy, and make it more engaging, relevant, and meaningful.

                                                              References

Cennamo, K., Ross, J., & Ertmer, P. (2009). Technology integration for meaningful  

       classroom use: A standards-based approach. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage  

       Learning.

Monitoring My GAME Plan Progress

    I mentioned in last week’s blog that I use my Mimio board into my classroom often. Just this week, while discussing political and social issues in Africa, I used Google Earth to zoom in on several townships in South Africa. While doing so, I also use a split screen to show video of the rise and fall of Apartheid in the country. I was able to use my interactive board to stop and fast forward the video very easily, while never actually leaving the board.  Not having to use a remote is wonderful.  I was also able to draw over the video and map with the Mimio markers to point out different things as opposed to using a laser pointer or yard stick. I felt this lesson was a great step forward into my GAME plan.

    However, I feel my GAME plan progress has slowed down. There is pressure from my administration for my students to perform at an exceptionally high level on our district’s end of the semester course test. My gifted students have to pull the weight of other students on my grade level that may not do as well, in order to make our scores look better. With that being said, I am now in a crunch to cover four weeks work of material in just two weeks—which is when the test will administered, and it is hindering my progress. I am concerned that I will not be able to meet my goal of integrating technology into the classroom every single day leading up to Winter Break.  I believe I have the resources to integrate, but not the time. I feel it is very easy and convenient at the moment to use my traditional lessons, rather than create new ones or modify the old ones to integrate technology. Doing so will take time that I simply do not have at this moment in the academic calendar. I do not foresee this as a problem in the future, and eventually I will reach my goal.

    On the a brighter note, this setback has shown me that some of the best developed plans may go awry due to circumstances that may be in or out of my own hands. The most important thing is to adapt and adjust, and continue to move forward, and to realize if I need to “modify my goals” (Cennamo, Ross, and Ertmer, 2009, p.5). This is the question that I will ponder over the next week or so. This time should give me an accurate measure of whether or not my original GAME plan goal is attainable.

 

                                                                                            References

 Cennamo, K., Ross, J. & Ertmer, P. (2009). Technology integration for meaningful classroom use: A standards-based approach.               (Laureate Education, Inc., Custom ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

At this point in my class, I have started to incorporate parts of my GAME plan.  This past week, I installed a new Mimio interactive board in my classroom. Once I installed this technology, my students were automatically interested.  In my GAME plan, I want to use technology every single day in the classroom. This interactive board will help me reach my students even more than I could before.  The interactive board is just the first step to what I need in my classroom to carry out my plan.  I will need technologies such as clickers, laptops, digital cameras, and digital recorders to continue to meet my plan.  Cennamo, Ross, and Ertmer (2009) explained that “digital media are a key factor for implementing UDL based on the flexibility they offer both teachers and students” (pg. 126).  Having these technologies will help me achieve my GAME plan, and assist the students in learning. One of my goals for teaching and instruction is to transform my class into a self-directed center for learning. I want to provide my students with all the resources and materials they need construct their own meaning of content, while being a facilitator of learning. Building online classes, similar to the ones we have here at Walden, is a step in that direction. While the Mimio software in itself is not a game changer, it does allow me to be away from my personal computer and interact with students, as well let the students step away from their technology to interact with their teacher.

Even though I have incorporated the interactive board in my class, I still have a bunch of work to do to completely meet my GAME plan. I feel I still have some lessons and plans that I am having trouble integrating technology with.  Some days, I revert back to my old ways of teaching, which include reading and answering questions with pen or pencil.  Even though I make my lessons very interactive between students, sometimes I feel I need to incorporate some sort of technology.  That is why I am glad I have the interactive board because now I can use more interactive websites and media in the classroom and not just in the computer lab. I am currently encouraging my students and parents to have some type of technology available for use each day. This concept is essential for achieving my goals of my GAME plan.

References:

Cennamo, K., Ross, J., & Ertmer, P. (2009). Technology integration for meaningful classroom

use: A standards-based approach. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning

Developing My Personal GAME Plan

After reading the National Education Standards for Teachers, I compared them to what my personal goals are.  I found two standards that I wanted to improve on and master during my teaching career. The first standard is to “engage students in exploring real-world issues and solving authentic problems using digital tools and resources” (ISTE, 1997-2009).  This standard interests me because I believe it fits in very well with social studies.  Part of the curriculum I teach is real world issues and what better way to do that by using technology to learn about them. 

 

The second standard is to “collaborate with students, peers, parents, and community members using digital tools and resources to support student success and innovation” (ISTE, 1997-2000).  This standard stood out to me right away.  I have envisioned a 21st century classroom and community where little pencil and paper is used.  Where students get immediate feedback on their work and where parents, teachers, and students are all connected in a twenty-four hour classroom.  I can envision a classroom that is totally redefined by technology because students are independent and innovative.

 

To meet these goals, I will begin to integrate technology based lessons into my class daily. By integrating technology daily, I will be teaching my students to become independent learners and innovative thinkers.  I want to create a website where students go every single day to get their assignment.  From there, I want to incorporate Web 2.0 activities and give each student individualized learning to help each student succeed in my class.  I believe technology can help teachers reach more students because it makes lesson easier to individualize.  Cennamo, Ross, and Ertmer (2009) reference Rose and Meyer (2002) who said “Universal design for learning (UDL) suggests that teachers can remove barriers to learning by providing flexibility in terms of options for materials, methods, and assessments” (pg. 117).  I would love for my classes to have no barriers of the type and the amount of learning that gets done by every single child.  I will know when I have reached my goals when I have included technology in every lesson and I act more as a guide to social studies then as a teacher of social studies. 

 

The way that I plan on extending my learning of these standards is to teach other teachers to use the technology skills that I have learned.  My school has just hired someone with a similar job description and I would love to be able to help more students in my school, not just in my classroom.  I figure the best way to do that is to teach other teachers to use technology in their 21st century classroom.

                                                                                         References:

 

Cennamo, K., Ross, J., & Ertmer, P. (2009). Technology integration for meaningful classroom use: A standards-based approach.                 Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE). Retrieved from http://www.iste.org/standards.

6711 Course Reflection

                                  EDUC 6711 Final Course Reflection

  

     As this course began I was asked to state my personal theory of learning, and I have often refereed back to what I initially wrote as I gathered more knowledge about learning theories and instructional tools from various experts. I would have to say that I still believe all theories of learning are important and relevant, but I tend to favor constructionism and social constructionism as the being the most effective in terms of student achievement and understanding. However, after completing this course I am more knowledgeable on how these theories can be implemented into daily instruction, and what technology tools, programs, and activities support these theories. It is my goal that with deeper understanding of the educational theories and technologies that support them, I will be a better educator for the remainder of the time I stay in the profession.

    There were a couple of changes that I made to my daily instruction as a result of the knowledge I gained during this course. The first was the use of non-linguistic representations to deepen student understanding. I immediately began to look at the resources I used to instruct students on a daily basis, I began to remove most of the wording in these resources, and replace them with pictures. I also remembered that when “teaching similarities and differences, use graphic representations to help students (Laureate, 2011)”, so I used more thinking maps. I was also introduced to VoiceThread in this course, which I really enjoyed, and believe it can have a significant impact on student learning in my classroom. I will implement this technology in the upcoming school year. I really enjoyed the ease of use, and all of the different media that can be added to the software in order to create projects and collaborate with other students and adults. Other technologies such as wikis and blogs allow “students to collaborate on projects without the constraints of time and geography (Pitler, H., Hubbell, E. R., & Kuhn, M., 2012, p.80)”, but I believe students will like this program more than the others. Designing activities using these programs also support my view on the importance of cooperative learning.

     One long-term goal I have set for myself is to incorporate more cooperative learning activities that incorporate 21st century technologies into my daily instruction. Currently, I do more than any other teacher on my grade level and content, but I do not think it is enough. The pressure of standardized testing does play a major role in the pacing of my lessons, which shrinks the amount of time allotted for these types of projects, but I am determined to find a balance between the two. Another long-term goal is to be a voice of 21st century technology implementation among my colleagues. Many of my fellow teachers see me as a leader, and there is no better way than to lead by example. I have already set up help sessions to those teachers that want to know more about blogs, wikis, and VoiceThread. It is my hope that they will attend these sessions, and return to their classes and use these technologies with their students as well.

    As I reflect on this course, I believe that I am a better teacher than I was seven weeks ago, and I have more weapons in my arsenal for instruction. I also know that the technologies and instructional strategies that I will employ in my class have be proven by research to work and increase student achievement. I enjoyed this course, and I am looking forward to gaining new knowledge in my future courses.

                                                               References:

Laureate Education, Inc. (Producer). (2011). Program eleven: Instructional strategies, Part one [Video  webcast]. Bridging learning theory, instruction and technology. Retrieved from http://laureate.ecollege.com/ec/crs/default.learn?CourseID=5700267&CPURL=laureate.ecollege.com&Survey=1&47=2594577&ClientNodeID=984650&coursenav=0&bhcp=1

Pitler, H., Hubbell, E. R., & Kuhn, M. (2012). Using technology with classroom instruction    

           that works (2nd  ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

VoiceThread & Connectivism and Social Learning in Practice

Link to Voice Thread: Achievement Gap Among Students with Disabililties and ESOL

https://walden.voicethread.com/share/4656968/

   

                                 Connectivism and Social Learning in Practice

In this week’s learning resources we explored the Social Learning Theory and Connectivism as they relate to acquiring knowledge. By premise, the Social Learning Theory is based on the belief that learning takes place by observing and modeling the interactions of people or things in his or her surroundings and environment. According to well-known psychologist Albert Bandura, “learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do (Bandura, 1977)”. While Connectivism is based around the idea that there is an abundance of knowledge and information that is readily available, and this knowledge has to be transferred onto some sort of network in order to be deciphered and understood. However, networks are rich and highly complex; therefore it may take a multitude of people to gather meaning and understanding.  Social learning has always been present in education, but with recent development in technologies, it has expanded the opportunities and capabilities of how this can take place in and out of the classroom. A few of these technologies include VoiceThread, wikis, blogs, and  video conferencing.

     VoiceThread allow students to upload images, text, audio, and video to a website that people can view, as well as share their thoughts. “VoiceThread is a powerful application because of its ease of use, and  its ability to extend across the curriculum (Laureate, 2011)”. I too, found VoiceThread to be very user friendly as compared to other similar technologies.

    Wikis and blogs are similar in that they allow for collaboration and discussion of different topics and issues beyond the classroom walls. Blogs allow students to share their insights, and receive feedback from a community of people. Students can agree or disagree on issues and topics, but the most important factor is that critical thinking is taking place in these debates. Wikis work in the same manner. However, they allow a larger group to collaborate on projects at the same time. Wikis are a way to gather, organize, and summarize an abundance of information in one place, which can also be viewed and commented on by others if desired.

    Another rather new technology to education is video conferencing. In the past, the cost of video conferencing was more than many school systems budget could spare. Recently however, “rapid advances in network infrastructure and bandwidth in our schools have made this approach more feasible than ever (Pitler, H., Hubbell, E. R., & Kuhn, M. 2012, p.80-81)”. Software such as Skype and FaceTime allows students to interact and collaborate over the Internet or phone, but also provides a visual. This is a very powerful tool in my own classroom because most of my middle school students need a visual in order to conceptualize ideas and concepts. As these technologies become cheaper and affordable, their use will only increase as tools for collaboration in education.

    

 

                                                          References:

Bandura, A. (1977). Social Learning Theory. Retrieved from   

        http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/social-learning.html

 

Laureate Education, Inc. (Producer). (2011b). Program nine: Connectivism as a learning theory  

      [Video webcast]. Bridging learning theory, instruction and technology. Retrieved from http://laureate.ecollege.com/ec/crs/default.learn?CourseID=5700267&CPURL=laureate.ecollege.com&Survey=1&47=2594577&ClientNodeID=984650&coursenav=0&bhcp=1

 

Pitler, H., Hubbell, E. R., & Kuhn, M. (2012). Using technology with classroom instruction that  

       works (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

 

 

 

 

 

Constructivism in Practice

                                        Constructivism in Practice

In this week’s learning resources, we read about the idea of generating and testing hypotheses. These concepts fall directly in line with the constructivist and constructionist theories because they allow students to create artifacts, problem solve, analyze, and experiment. These concepts have been used by scientists for many years, and have a profound impact on student learning as well. It is vital that teachers design activities that touch upon these concepts in order to engage students, and prepare them for real world experiences. Furthermore, advances in technology have made these activities easier to complete, and allows for more communication and collaboration between students and educators.

     In this week’s video segment, the teacher had her students create a booklet using Microsoft Publisher. This task could have fallen into one or two categories, experimental inquiry or investigation. Her students had the opportunity to document what they learned or interpreted from the story, and they also had the opportunity to clear up any misconceptions that others may have had about the story. Ideally, this activity would align with the constructivist ideology because each student can “construct his or her own meaning (Laureate, 2011)” of what happened in the story. It would also align with the constructionist ideology because each student was creating an artifact. Also, the technology allowed the teacher to assign more complex tasks for her students.

    Another example of technology supporting these theories was the use of Inspiration to create a root cause analysis graphic organizer. Often, these types of activities are higher order thinking exercises, and ‘students often need some scaffolding at first to help them successfully attain higher levels of understanding (Pitler, Hubbell, & Kuhn, 2012, p. 205)”. Advanced organizers are a great way to assist students in navigating difficult concepts. They also provide a visual aid for the end product on many occasions. Whether they are the end artifact, or a personal guide to produce an artifact, they are very beneficial to many students and educators; which support the theories of constructivism and constructionism.

                                                          

                                                     References:

Laureate Education, Inc. (2011). Constructionist and constructivist learning theories.

            Baltimore, MD: Orey.

Pitler, H., Hubbell, E. R., & Kuhn, M. (2012). Using technology with classroom instruction  

            that works (2nd ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

 

Cognitivism in Practice (Re-Post)

                         Cognitivism in Practice

 

   The Cognitivist theory deals with how a person learns, or more specifically, how the brain stores and retains information. Recent studies have shown that the brain takes chunks of information and moves them into working memory, and eventually into long term memory. The chunks of information that reach long term memory are connected with other chunks of information, and can be pulled backed into working memory as needed. In fact, “All incoming information is organized and processed in the working memory by interaction with knowledge in long-term memory (Novak & Canas, 2006)”. The way a person learns and how the information is presented, heavily contributes to how these chunks of information enter the portion of the brain that controls long term memory. Many of today’s students are visual and auditory learners. Advanced organizers, summarizing and note taking, virtual field trips, and concept mapping are some tools that help them learn information.

     Advance organizers are a great way to organize information as the students move through a lesson or unit. These organizers can include pictures and symbols, vocabulary, and figures that show how the pieces of information on the organizer are linked and related. We often call these thinking maps. There are many different thinking maps that can be used as advanced organizers. One of the key pieces to creating an advanced organizer is to have the information presented linked back to an “essential question (Pitler, H., Hubbell, E. R., & Kuhn, M., 2012, p. 95)”. This allows the students to understand why the information is important, from what point of view is the information being presented, and where did the information come from? I often use Mimio software and SmartBook software to create advanced organizers for my students. Many times they are only skeletons, and they students have to fill in all of the necessary information. There are other times when I do fill in some of the information, especially with difficult concepts, to help guide students through the organizer. I do this often with my collaborative class.

   According to Pitler, H., Hubbell, E. R., & Kuhn, M., “summarizing and note taking focuses on enhancing students’ ability to synthesize information and distill it into a concise new form (p.147)”. There are many technologies available that can do so. One that I have used quite frequently is Wordle. This technology allows students to type in words or phrases, and creates a digital collage of these words and terms. Students like using this software because it makes each Wordle unique, regardless of whether or not some of them use the same information. Teachers can also quickly glance at a Wordle, and get a feel on whether or not the students’ have mastered a concept.  

    Virtual field trips are a powerful tool because it allows students to go where they physically cannot, and it creates “a rich experience (Laureate, 2011)” for the learner that can create episodes of learning. These field trips are usually free and easy to access, which removes two of the major barriers for many students and educators in today’s educational system. It also gives students a visual representation of the information being presented, which is a very powerful tool in the learning process. These field trips can be used as culminating activities, or as an opening activity that can be used to draw information and experiences from throughout the unit.

    Concept mapping is another tool that gives students a visual representation of information. They are tools that help organize information, and show links and relationships to different concepts. These maps usually highlight the most important information and concepts in a unit, which in itself is a summarizing mechanism for students. Concept maps also help students and teachers understand the learning objectives for units, and spotlight important vocabulary in the unit or chapter. Today, technology allows to summarizing in different ways. Blogs, wikis, Google Docs, and other programs allow people to summarize information, but are much more interactive. These programs not only support the cognitive theory, but also the constructivist and social constructivist theories of learning.

                                                              

 

 

                                                              References:

Laureate Education, Inc. (2011). Spotlight on technology: Virtual field trips. .

Novak, J. D., & Canas, A. J. (2006-01 Rev 01-2008). The theory underlying concept maps and  

          how to construct them, Technical Report IHMC Cmap Tools. Retrieved from  

          http://cmap.ihmc.us/Publications/ResearchPapers/TheoryUnderlyingConceptMaps.pdf

Pitler, H., Hubbell, E. R., & Kuhn, M. (2012). Using technology with classroom instruction that  

           works (2nd  ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

 

 

Cognitivism in Practice

                                                   Cognitivism in Practice

 

   The Cognitivist theory deals with how a person learns, or more specifically, how the brain stores and retains information. Recent studies have shown that the brain takes chunks of information and moves them into working memory, and eventually into long term memory. The chunks of information that reach long term memory are connected with other chunks of information, and can be pulled backed into working memory as needed. In fact, “All incoming information is organized and processed in the working memory by interaction with knowledge in long-term memory (Novak & Canas, 2006)”. The way a person learns and how the information is presented, heavily contributes to how these chunks of information enter the portion of the brain that controls long term memory. Many of today’s students are visual and auditory learners. Virtual field trips and concept mapping are two tools to help them learn information.

    Virtual field trips are a powerful tool because it allows students to go where they physically cannot, and it creates “a rich experience (Laureate, 2011)” for the learner that can create episodes of learning. These field trips are usually free and easy to access, which removes two of the major barriers for many students and educators in today’s educational system. It also gives students a visual representation of the information being presented, which is a very powerful tool in the learning process. These field trips can be used as culminating activities, or as an opening activity that can be used to draw information and experiences from throughout the unit.

    Concept mapping is another tool that gives students a visual representation of information. They are tools that help organize information, and show links and relationships to different concepts. These maps usually highlight the most important information and concepts in a unit, which in itself is a summarizing mechanism for students. Concept maps also help students and teachers understand the learning objectives for units, and spotlight important vocabulary in the unit or chapter. Today, technology allows to summarizing in different ways. Blogs, wikis, Google Docs, and other programs allow people to summarize information, but are much more interactive. These programs not only support the cognitive theory, but also the constructivist and social constructivist theories of learning.

                                                                References:

Laureate Education, Inc. (2011). Spotlight on technology: Virtual field trips. .

Novak, J. D., & Canas, A. J. (2006-01 Rev 01-2008). The theory underlying concept maps and  

          how to construct them, Technical Report IHMC Cmap Tools. Retrieved from  

          http://cmap.ihmc.us/Publications/ResearchPapers/TheoryUnderlyingConceptMaps.pdf

 

Behaviorism in Practice Re-Post

                                                       Behaviorism in Practice

 

    The behaviorist theory is based on the premise that behavior can shape the effort that a student puts forth in class, which in turn affects the level of achievement that a student attains. This week’s resources also provided many technology based applications and strategies that supported the behaviorist theory. There are three that I use often that I believe reinforce the principles of the behaviorist theory. They address homework, student effort, and student behavior.

     The first technology component deals with how I assign and assess homework. I try to instill in my students from the first time that they walk into my classroom that homework is a critical aspect of the curriculum. I often talk about examples of students that have completed their homework in prior years, as compared to students that did not, and the results. This is all part of trying to change their attitudes and behavior towards homework. I also let them know that when I assign homework I will provide feedback to every student; or that the technology that they use will, and we will discuss those findings. Two pieces of technology that I use are Remind101 and USA TestPrep. Remind 101is an application that I use to send texts to my students and parents to remind them of their homework assignments on a needed basis. Almost all of my students have cell phones, so this is a great way of reaching them outside of school. I begin using this program in mid-January, and have seen an increase in the quantity of completed assignments, and the quality of work. USA TestPrep is a site that prepares students for the CRCT, which is used for promotion in my state, for the grade that I teach. This site allows kids to watch videos, play games, take practice tests, and complete benchmarks on anything that we discuss or cover in class. This site also sends me and update immediately when students complete assignments, which allows me to send the immediate feedback through a message, or when I see them the next morning. The thing I like best about the site is that it allows me to assign individual assignments. I can use this feature to tailor my assignments to my students’ learning styles and abilities. I can assign videos to my audio-visual learners, games to my students that are tactile learners, and simple tests and practice to my high achievers. I can also change the degree of difficulty of the assignments. For my at-risk students I can assign them some level-one questions to boost their confidence. I can also assign only level three and four questions to my students that may need enrichment activities. Bottom line, the site is an educational technology that “is a support for teaching and learning that both teacher and student can call on to help ensure the opportunity for optimum performance (Lever-Duffy, J., & McDonald, J., 2008, p.28)”. I have been using this site for two years, and my students’ standardized test scores have soared.

     USA TestPrep also gives students badges and awards when they achieve certain levels of success on the website. This has helped with intrinsic motivation for many of my students. It also helps to “better track the effects of effort and provide immediate feedback to students (Pitler, H., Hubbell, E. R., & Kuhn, M., 2012, p. 58)”. I never mention the badges. The students that always complete their homework talk with their peers about their accomplishments, and in turn it becomes a competition of who can achieve the most badges. There is no incentive or reward, other than occasional verbal praise, yet the competitive nature of my students drive them to try to attain certain levels of success on the website. This was something that I happen to stumble upon, but it has been a positive factor in my classroom. This reinforces the behaviorist theory that as students attain small increments of success, it can change their attitudes and feelings toward a particular event or concept. This is what I believe is happening with my students, and their view on homework.

     Lastly, I use the PBIS website to print off rubrics for students’ behavior in my class and the school. We spend much of the first week of school discussing and editing the rubrics as needed. We also periodically spend time reviewing the rubrics as needed throughout the year. This gives my students a concrete outline of expected behavior, as well as the consequences they will receive for not following the rubric or matrix. The site also allows me to create behavior charts that can track student behavior. I have not had to use these charts often, but when they were used, they were successful at reducing unwanted behaviors. Technology has not changed the principles behind the behaviorist theory, but it has made the process of implementing this theory much easier, and less time consuming.

 

                                                                References:

 

Lever-Duffy, J., & McDonald, J. (2008). Theoretical foundations (Laureate Education, Inc.,  

           custom ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.

Pitler, H., Hubbell, E. R., & Kuhn, M. (2012). Using technology with classroom instruction that  

           works (2nd  ed.). Alexandria, VA: ASCD.